PRT 140: Lesson 1 Introduction

Objectives

  • Review Syllabus and Professional Behavior policy
  • Describe Class Requirements and Expectations
  • Discuss instrumentation in process industries
  • Describe the major process variables
  • Define instrumentation terms/concepts
  • Identify P&ID symbols for instrumentation signals

Reading

Instrumentation

  • What is ‘instrumentation’?
  • Where do you use instrumentation in your daily life?

What is Process Instrumentation?

  • Why do we need it?
  • What does it look like?
  • Why do you (Operators) need to know?

4 Major Process Variables

  • P – Pressure
  • T – Temperature
  • F – Flow
  • L – Level

Process Variables

A diagram of how pressure applies force on a column of water.
Process Variables
[image 140-1-01]

Flow

A diagram describing flow.
Flow diagram
[image 140-1-02-01]

Terms to Know

  • Variables – process conditions that will change (vary) – F, T, P, L, analytical
  • Differential, Delta, ∆
    Difference between values at two different points
  • Units – measurement system used to express the variable – psi, deg F, inches, etc
  • Unit Conversions – formulas to change from one set of units to another, for the same variable
  • Scales, Scaling – used in input/output –
    relationship between units of two different and related variables.
  • Indicate, Transmit, Record, Control – later
  • Signal type
    Analog, Digital, pneumatic
  • Local –
    located at or near the process
    Sensors, local readouts, etc
  • Remote –
    Located away from the process – control room
    Controllers, readouts, recorders, etc
  • Automatic/Manual

Local Instrument

An example of a local instrument
A Local Instrument
[image 140-1-03]

Remote Instrument

A photo of a remote instrument
A photo of a remote instrument
[140-1-04]

Instrument Functions

  • Indicating – displays the current reading
  • Transmitting – communicates data via signal
    different types of signals
  • Recording – keeps historical data – graphs, run charts, data records, etc.
  • Controlling – manipulating process variables to keep a specific variable at a certain value

Control Loops

A diagram of a control loop
Control Loops
[image 140-1-05]

Pneumatic Instruments

A diagram of a pneumatic instrument
Pneumatic instruments
[140-1-06]

Electronic Instruments

A digram of an electronic instrument
Electronic Instruments
[image 140-1-07]

Digital Instruments

An example of a digital instrument
Digital Instruments
[image 140-1-08]

Analog Signals

An example of an analog display
Analog Signals
[image 140-1-09]

Digital Signals

An example of a digital display
Digital Display
[image 140-1-10]

Calculations

MAJOR RULES OF SOLVING ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS:

Order of operations:

  1. Work outwards from any terms that are inside parentheses
  2. Then do any multiplication/division operations
  3. Then do any addition/subtraction operations

An equation is simply a way to express the fact that the terms on either side of an ‘equals’ sign (=) are equivalent. That means that if you do the same mathematical operation to each side of the equals sign, the two sides are still equivalent. For example, multiply both sides by 2, and the equation is still true.

Any term divided by itself = 1. This is how you manipulate the equation so that you end up with only one unknown term. Then you solve for that term.

Units used with values also multiply and divide. Usually you want to end up with only one set of units in the answer, so you can double-check your work by making sure that all other units cancel each other out. mA/mA = 1 (no units)

Drawing Information

  • P&ID – stands for?
    • Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
    • Outlines function of instrumentation and controls
  • References:
    • Chapter 12 in Textbook – used throughout the semester
    • Alpha Oil Legend Drawing D-00-F1000

P&IDs – Instrumentation Information

  • Tag Number Identification – in Balloons
    • See table 12-1
  • Physical type of instrument, how installed
    • Varied levels of detail available on a P&ID
  • Type of signal sent/received from instruments
    • See Table 12-4
  • Control scheme – how instruments interact with each other and with the process
    • More advanced – later in the semester

Example

  • Tag Numbers: FT-100
  • Type of Instrument:
    • FE-100 is the symbol for an orifice plate flow meter
  • Type of signal: FY-100 to FCV-100 is a pneumatic signal
  • How do they interact? We will learn control theory later in the course.
P & ID Information
P & ID Information
[image 140-1-11]

Tag Number Functional Description: Table 12-1

  1. Start in Left-Hand Column, then move to the right through the columns.
  2. First letter indicates the measured variable; following letters indicate the function.
  3. Always keep moving to the right – you do not move backwards through the column.

Example:

FIC = Flow Indicating Controller

PDE = Pressure Differential Element

Instrument Terminology

 First LetterSucceeding Letters
Measured or Initiating VariableModifierReadout or Passive FunctionOutput FunctionModifier
AAnalysisAlarm
BBurnerUser's ChoiceUser's ChoiceUser's Choice
CConductivity (Electrical)Control
DDensity or Specific GravityDifferential
EVoltage (EMF)Primary Element
FFlow RateRatio (Fraction)
GGaging (Dimensional)Glass
HHand (Manually Initiated)High
ICurrent (Electrical)Indicate
JPowerScan
KTime or Time Schedule
LLevelLight (pilot)Low

Signal Types on PIDs

An instrument diagram
Instrument diagram
[140-1-13]
Standard line symbols
Table 12-4
[image 140-1-14]

PRT 140: Course Schedule

Week Date Lecture Topics Reading Assignment
1 Course Requirements, Overview, Introduction to Instrumentation Chapter 1
2 Pressure Calculations, Measurement, and Conversions Chapter 2
3 Temperature Calculations, Measurement, and Conversions Chapter 3
4 Level Calculations, Measurements, and Conversions Chapter 4
5 TEST 1
6 Flow Calculations, Measurements, and Conversions Chapter 5
7 Analytical Instruments, Miscellaneous Measuring Devices Chapter 6, 7
8 Introduction to Control Loops Chapter 8
9 BREAK – NO CLASS
10 Control Loops: Primary Sensors, Transmitters, Transducers Chapter 9
11 TEST 2
12 Control Loops: Controllers and Final Control Elements Chapter 10
13 Control Loops: Control Valves and Regulators Chapter 11
14 Symbology and Course Review Chapter 12
15 FINAL EXAM

PRT 140: Syllabus

COURSE INFORMATION

Title: Industrial Process Instrumentation I

Department/Number: PRT 140

Credits: 3

Prerequisites: DEVM 105 or permission of Instructor

Location: Fairbanks Pipeline Training Center

INSTRUCTOR INFORMATION

Name: Brian Ellingson

COURSE READINGS/MATERIALS

Course Textbook, Required: CAPT Instrumentation

ISBN # 978-0-13-700413-3 Author: Pearson

Supplementary Readings: As provided by instructor

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Physics of pressure, temperature, level and flow measurement; mechanical and electrical aspects of instruments used to control dynamics of processes.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF GOALS

Industrial Process Instrumentation I is a comprehensive course that identifies the equipment utilized to control process variables and the theory behind their physical operation. Students will learn how these primary measurements are utilized to control physical properties required to safely operate the equipment found in process industries. Students will also learn the basic theories of control logic including proportional control, integral timing, automatic reset and derivative action.

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES/OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of this course the student will be able to accomplish the following tasks:

  1. Discuss the historical significance of process control in industry.
  2. Describe how process variables are measured and utilized in the process industry.
  3. Describe how pressure is measured and transmitted.
  4. Describe how flow is measured and transmitted.
  5. Describe how temperature is measured and transmitted.
  6. Describe how level is measured and transmitted.
  7. Describe the function and role of analytical instruments in the process industry.
  8. Describe the role of primary sensors, transmitters, controllers and controlled elements in a controlled loop.
  9. Calculate relationships between process variables, and perform basic calculations used for instrument calibration and analysis.
  10. Identify the appropriate terminology and drawing symbols for the instruments studied.

INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS

Instructional methods will include lectures, in-class activities, reading assignments, videos, homework, and the use of the Blackboard system.

CLASS ASSIGNMENT SCHEDULE

Weekly homework assignments will be provided through the Blackboard system. In-class activities will be assigned during class at Instructor discretion.

COURSE POLICIES

Students are expected to comply with the University Student Code of Conduct available for review at:

http://www.uaf.edu/catalog/current/academics/regs3.html#Student_Conduct

CLASS POLICIES

Classroom Ground Rules (see Instructor if you have special requirements)

  1. Students agree to follow the PRT Professional Behavior Policy.
  2. Respect your Instructor and your classmates.
  3. Turn off cell phones during class. Texting during class is not permitted.
  4. Shop activities require the use of PPE. Students must be dressed appropriately to work in the shop – closed-toe shoes (no sandals) are required.

Homework, Class Activities, Class Notes, and Blackboard

Clear and complete written communication is required in the workplace; therefore, we expect clear written communication from you in this class. Your homework submissions will be evaluated on the basis of their content and their presentation. See the grading rubric for reference.

In-class activities are weighed even more heavily than weekly homework in your final grade.

As a student you are responsible for taking notes and making certain you understand the information presented. Ask questions during class, and follow up with the Instructor outside of class if you need more information.

Students are expected to use Blackboard. Let the Instructor know immediately if you have special circumstances about using Blackboard.

Class Attendance and Participation

The CTC PRT department strives to create a work-like atmosphere to prepare you for a career in the process industry.   Attendance and participation are expected in the workplace; they are expected in this class.

What is ‘participation’? Verbal communication is critical when working in the process industries; therefore, we expect participation in class. Students should be prepared to:

  • Discuss subject matter presented in class
  • Ask questions
  • Discuss your homework during class review
  • Work with other students on in-class and lab activities
  • Answer Instructor questions
  • Take part in demonstrations, safety huddles, and activities

You are responsible for managing your attendance and absences. You must contact the Instructor before class to arrange any absences – in writing if possible. If you are absent without notifying the Instructor, you forfeit all Attendance/Participation credit for that class, as well as the right to earn credit for making up any in-class activities that you missed.

Assignment Due Dates, Assignment and Test makeup policy

You are responsible for meeting the assignment and testing schedules, and for arranging any extensions and makeup work with your Instructor. All extensions/reschedules must be requested in writing.

Due dates for Homework and In-Class activities will be posted in Blackboard with the assignment. Extensions must be requested in writing on or before the due date.

Tests must be taken on the scheduled dates.   If there is a valid reason that you can’t take a test at the scheduled date/time, you must contact the Instructor in writing before the scheduled test to explain your absence, and request permission to take a makeup test.   Once you have permission, you can schedule your makeup test with Jodi Baxter, the PRT Administrative Assistant, 907-479-2436.   Makeup tests must be taken within one week of the originally scheduled date.

Special situations: You must work out a schedule with the Instructor before the due dates.

Instructor has discretion in applying grade penalties for extensions and late submissions.

EVALUATION

Grading Scale                                              Evaluation System

A = 100-90%                                                  Exams and Quizzes                 30%

B =   89-80%                                                  Final Exam                              30%

C =   79-70%                                                  Homework and activities         30%

D =   69-60%                                                  Participation/Attendance          10%

F =   59% or less

 

Plus and minus grades will not be submitted.

NOTE: You must achieve a Final Grade of C, or you will have to re-take this course, and you may not be allowed to take the next course in the PRT sequence, PRT 144.

SUPPORT SERVICES

Extensive support services are available for the student and can be found on the web at: www.uaf.edu/sssp/. Students are encouraged to form study groups with their peers. The instructor is available to assist students on an as scheduled basis. Students are encouraged to take full advantages of all these services.

DISABILITIES SERVICES

UAF has a Disability Services office that operates in conjunction with the College of Rural and Community Development’s (CRCD) campuses and UAF’s Center for Distance Education (CDE). Disability Services, a part of UAF’s Center for Health and Counseling, provides academic accommodations to enrolled students who are identified as being eligible for these services. If you believe you are eligible, please visit http://www.uaf.edu/chc/disability.html on the web or contact a student affairs staff person at your nearest local campus. You can also contact Disability Services on the Fairbanks Campus at (907) 474-7043, fydso@uaf.edu.

PRT 140: Industrial Process Instrumentation I

Industrial Process Instrumentation I is a comprehensive course that identifies the equipment utilized to control process variables and the theory behind their physical operation. Students will learn how these primary measurements are utilized to control physical properties required to safely operate the equipment found in process industries. Students will also learn the basic theories of control logic including proportional control, integral timing, automatic reset and derivative action.


Course Information

Credits: 3

Prerequisites: DEVM 105 Intermediate Algebra or permission of instructor

Instructional Goals

  1.  Identify the role of a process technician with instrumentation and controls.
  2. Explain the terminology utilized by process technicians in describing instrumentation and controls.
  3. Explain safety issues related to process instrumentation and controls.
  4. Explain and demonstrate variables used and measured in process systems.
  5. Explain and demonstrate pressure sensing equipment.
  6. Explain and demonstrate flow sensing equipment.
  7. Explain and demonstrate temperature sensing equipment.
  8. Explain and demonstrate level sensing equipment.
  9. Explain and demonstrate control loops and controllers
  10. Explain and demonstrate basic instrumentation troubleshooting

Student Outcomes

Student Outcomes
Upon successful completion of the course, the student will be able to do the following:
Assessment Procedures
This outcome will be assessed by one or more of the following:
Discuss the historical significance of process control in industry.Performance answering identified test questions.
Describe how process variables are measured and utilized in the process industry.Performance answering identified test questions
Describe/ identify how pressure is measured and transmitted.Performance answering identified test questions
Observed performance identifying
Describe/ identify how flow is measured and transmitted.Performance answering identified test questions
Observed performance identifying
Describe/ identify how temperature is measured and transmitted.Performance answering identified test questions
Observed performance identifying
Describe/ identify how level is measured and transmitted.Performance answering identified test questions
Observed performance identifying
Describe the function and role of analytical instruments in the process industry.Performance answering identified test questions
Observed performance identifying
Describe the role of primary sensors, transmitters, controllers and controlled elements in a controlled loop.Performance answering identified test questions
Calculate relationships between process variables, and perform basic calculations used for instrument calibration and analysis.Performance answering identified test questions
Observed performance of calibration
Identify the appropriate terminology and drawing symbols for the instruments studied.Performance answering identified test questions

Course Outline

  1. Introduction to Instrumentation
    1. Importance of instrumentation to process industries
    2. Instrumentation terminology
    3. Major process variables
    4. Relationships between process variables
    5. Variable change effects on accurate measurements
  2. Process Variables, Elements and Instruments – Pressure
    1. Pressure and pressure instrumentation terminology
    2. Components that affect force
    3. Common types of pressure sensing/measuring instruments
    4. Purpose of pressure sensing in a process
    5. Pressure conversions/scales
  3. Process Variables, Elements and Instruments – Temperature
    1. Temperature and temperature instrumentation terminology
    2. Heat energy and temperature scales
    3. Common types of temperature sensing/measuring instruments
    4. Purpose of temperature sensing in a process
    5. Temperature conversions/scales
  4. Process Variables, Elements and Instruments – Level
    1. Level and level instrumentation terminology
    2. Common types of level sensing/measuring instruments
    3. Purpose of level sensing in a process
    4. Hydrostatic head pressure and reference pressure in relation to level
    5. Relationship between temperature and level control/fluid density
    6. Relationship between temperature and level control/volume
  5. Process Variables, Elements and Instruments – Flow
    1. Flow and flow instrumentation terminology
    2. Common types of flow sensing/measuring instruments
    3. Purpose of flow sensing in a process
    4. Difference between total volume flow and flow rate
    5. Flow conversions/scales
  6. Process Variables, Elements and Instruments – Analytical
    1. Analytical and analytical instrumentation terminology
    2. Common types of flow sensing/measuring instruments
    3. Purpose of analytical sensing in a process
    4. How analytical instrumentation affects the role of the process technician
    5. Process technicians role in analytical instrumentation performance
  7. Miscellaneous Measuring Devices
    1. Terminology associated with measuring devices
    2. Load cells
    3. Vibration measurement
    4. Proximity switches
    5. signal conversions/scales
  8. Introduction to Control Loops
    1. Description of process control
    2. Function of a control loop
    3. Components of a control loop
    4. Open and closed control loops
    5. Signal transmission types
  9. Introduction to Control Loops – Controllers
    1. Terminology associated with controllers
    2. Types of controller functions
    3. Applications of controller types/functions
    4. Controller operations
    5. Controller bumpless transfers
  10. Control Valves and Final Control Elements
    1. Terminology associated with valves and final control elements
    2. Components of a control valve
    3. Applications of control valve types/elements
    4. Role of the final control element in the control loop
    5. Control valve actuators/operation
  11. Instrumentation Troubleshooting
    1. Facility practices related to process technician troubleshooting
    2. Typical malfunctions of sensing elements and transmitters
    3. Importance of process knowledge in troubleshooting
    4. Proper use of tools and meters
    5. Purpose of instrument calibration

Suggested Text

Instrumentation
By CAPT(Center for the Advancement of Process Tech)
Pearson, 2010
ISBN # 978-0-13-700413-3

Bibliography

DACUM Research Chart for Mill Operator
Produced for Teck Alaska Inc. Red Dog Mine – June 2015
Prepared by John P. Hakala
Apprenticeship USA United States Department of Labor